Nanotechnology is defined as design and application of materials and systems in the 1 to 100 nm range. The relatively large ratio of surface area to volume is a common feature of nanomaterials. Nanomaterials in clinical trials or are FDA-approved include liposomes, dendrimers, and gold nanoparticles while nanomaterials that are in proof-of-concept research stages include gold nanorod, quantum dot, fullerene, and carbon nanotube. Present adult clinical applications for nanomaterials include MRI contrast agent, in vivo diagnostics, laboratory-on-a-chip, or as drug carriers in cancer therapy, but there remains very little experience in the pediatric population.
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